TASAWAUF IN INDONESIA
1. Hamzah Al-Fansuri
A. Biography of Hamzah Al-Fansuri
Hamzah Al-Faunsuri is very popular in every Islamic teaching in Indonesia, A lot of Islamic history writer notes that Syeikh Hamzah Al-Fansuri and his follower Syeikh Syamsuddin Sumatrani Anclude of “Sufism” who get a long with Al-hallaj hulul Ittihad, mahabbah and the others are the poet who is noted in Melayu and Indonesia Litterary. Based on the word fansuri most of researgher thinks that he comos from “fansur” the little city in morth Sumatra which is located between sibolga and singkol. He writes on one of his poem.
” Hamzah nur asalnya fansuri
Mendapat wujud di tanah syahr nawi
Broleh khilafat ilmu yang ilahi
Dari pada Abdul Qodir “sayyid jailani”
There is a man who gives an opinion that “Syahru Nawi (sean live)” Is ” Bandan Ayuthoa” the ontral city of Siam kingdom. The other opinion says that Syahru Nawi is the oldest name from Aceh.
There are so many people who refuse that wahdatul wujud hulul and ittihad belong to Al Fansuri they are quite influenced and consider Al-Fansuri as a “Shindiq” or wrong teaching there is also people who consider him as a “Syiah” in tasawuf he joins with “Tarekat Qodariyah” that was stated to syeikh Abdul Qodir Jailani.
The Pemps of Syaikh Hamzah Fansur has been collected in famous book, in melayu/ Indonesia, it is noted in his books of poem as follows :
• Syair Burung pingai
• Syair Dagang
• Syair Pungguk
• Syair Sidang Faqir
• Syair Ikan Tongkol
• Syair Perahu.
Syeikh hamzah Fansuri Seems to be a Lingguistics and melayu. It can be found from his words :
” Amma ba’du adapun ketahui olehmu, has saudaraku bahwa faqie al-haqir Adh-Dhaif Hamzah fansuri Radhrallahu anhu hendak menyatakan jalan kepada Allah dengan bahasa jawa dalam kitab ini saat sampai segala yang tidak tahu bahasa Arab dan farsi dapat memahaminya
Hamzah fansuri is very to great tasawuf based on his firm belief, there is an opinion that say that he ever goes to all of peninsula and develops tasawuf in lot of country such as perak, perils, kelantam terengganu etc.
B. Teaching Tasawuf of Hamzah Al-Fansuri
Some Thikking of hazah Al-Fansuri about tasawuf is largely influenced by ibnu Arabi in his “Wahdat Wujud”. As a sufi he teach that god is not for away from the human own neck and god (Allah) unlocated more ever he is often considered in every where. When he explain the verses ” Fainama tuwallu fatsamma wajhu’llah ” he said that the possibility to see Allah existence indude of unio-mistica in everywhere. As follows the gracious the merciful, Jalal and Jamal. In one of Al-Fansuri Poem Said:
Mahbubnu itu tiada berhasil
Pada ayna ma tuwanu jangan kau ghafil
Fat tsamma wajhulla sempurna hasil
Inilah jalan orang yang kamil.
Hamzah al-fanduri refuse teaching prayana on Hindu follow religion that lo imagine of god certain past from the body, as top of the head that is considen as soul and to be point of konsentrasion on the efforts to get university.
The desriptions had ever been by Hamzah al-fansuri there are body and sow the are expressed by his poem
” Hamzah Fansuri di dalam Mekkah
Mencari tuhan ke kudus dai baitul ka’abah
Di barus ke Kudus terlalu payah
Akhirnya dapat di dalam rumah”.
Other poem of Hamzah fansuri Said :
” Hamzah Ghorib
Akan rumahnya baitul ma’muri
Kkursinya sekalianb kafuri
Di negeri fansuri Minal Asyjari.”
Abd. Al-Shaihad Al-Pelembani comes from the young generation of Yaman Arabic. His Father “Syaikh Abd. Al-Jalil Ibn Syaikki Abd. Wahhab Al Madani” Moved to Palembang in the end of 17 century. He was ever a “mufti” of Kedal area in 170 cristian era. After he reformed to Palembang he got married and had a little son. He gave a good name for “his son” Abd. Al Shamad the event came about 1700-1704 cristian era.
Al Palembani received firstly a religion educational in his first place he was born. Then he spent a half of hisage in makkh and Madinah by taking a study and getting a book. “Syaikh Muhammad Al Saman Al Wadani Was one of his teacher and he was also the owner of “Al Samaniyah Al-Khalwatiyah. Al Palembani got ahead to get the certification of samaniyah Al Khawatiyah and developed it largely. When he got an old time, he got around back to his country, Palembang, he taught Al Samaniyah at Khaliwatiyah and got a lot of followers there. He also finished his life in Kedah, where his brothers lived.
Al Palembani had written a lot of books as follows :
1. Zahrah Al-Murid Fi Bayan Kalimah Al Tauhid (1764 M)
2. Nashihah Al Muslimin Wa Tadzkirah Al Mu’minin fi Fadha’il Al Jihad Fi Sbiliwah Wa Karamah Al Mujahidin Fi Sabilillah (1772 M).
3. Tuhfah al-Raghibin fi Bayan Haqiqah (1774 M)
4. Al-Urwah Al Wusqa Wa Silsilah uli al-Tuqa (The script inknown)
5. Hidayah al-salikin fi suluk mas lak al-Muttaqin (1787 M)
6. Ratib Abd. Al Shamad
7. Sayr Al-Salikin Ila Rabb Al Alamin (1788)
8. Zad al-Muttaqin Fi Tauhid Rabb Al-Alamin (Summary of his teacher’ opinion)
One of Al Palembani’ books told about “Wahdatul Al-Wujud”. It was based on his teacher lesson. It was also included of Al Palembani disappeared book.
Al Palembani was included of a “Tasawuf sunni” who substituted Al Raniri to face the group of hamzah fansuri by taking some great opinion/ thinking. He was a man who became the last person to get Ahl-Al Sunnah wa Al-Jama’ah and “Tasawuf Sunni” He also got ahead to defend the influence of his teaching in Indonesia. We could conclude that when “Tasawuf Falsafi was led by Hamzah Fansuri could develop largely a lot of Al Palembani books especially by using two translation of Al-Ghazali ‘books which could give the large influence in the world
“Winsted said that”
“Actually is century of crismast had drawn a high developed of Tasawuf history in Indonesia Archipelago. People had returned to tasawuf Sunni, it was happened by Abd. Al Shamad Al Palembani ‘efforts by using two translation of Al Ghazali “books” Bidayah Al Hidayah and lubub Ihya ‘ulum Al-din”.
Al Palembani came with Al-Ghazali teaching (Ahl al sunnah wa al Jam’ah) tspecially for the relationship between god and human being. It was looked like Al Palembani words”.
He said that “God is only one Qodim is the first, he is not a substantion who gets a lot of essentials, he isn’t also a temporary and no body takes after him. “According to Al Palembani “Direct Ma’rifatullah in the world is a possibility thing and it is only occurred for the next life. Ma’rifah can be proved in the power of God Into human” soul.
Al Palembani confirmed that someone who considered that God took after his creation, he hadn’t been able to be someone who had got a highest Tauhid Faching. Someone who thought that God took after his creation, he was also included into “Pantheis me wujudiyah “and it was a bad teaching. According to Palembani there was 13 groups who was included of Hulul. Ittihad and wujudiyah they weren’t a sufi and a bad teacher one of them believed that God lived in human soul.
Hamzah Fansuri was a famous Sumatran sufi writer, the first to pen mystical panentheistic ideas into the Malay language. He wrote both prose and poetry, and worked in the court of the Aceh Sultanate.
Hamzah Fansuri is a Sufi adept and a great Malay poet. He was born in Barus, a place situated on the west coast of North Sumatra, not far from the town of present day Sibolga. This place is identical with Fansur, an earlier Arabic name for that place. He studied tasawuf in Qadiriya thariqat established by Syeikh Abdul Qadir al-Jailani, as it is cited in his poem saying that: “Hamzah” ilmunya zahir/Ustadhnya Shaykh `Abdu’l Qadir…” (Hamzah`s knowledge is clearly manifest/His teacher was Sheikh `Abdu`l-Qadir” (al-Attas 1970:11).
Full name of palembani is Abd Shamad Al Palembani. He come from Arab Yaman decline. His father Syaikh ‘Abd Al-Jalil Ibn Syaikh ‘Abd Wahab Al-Mahdani which evacuate to Palembang at last 17 M century.
Al Palembani that is Tasawuf sunni figure which continue as a replacement Al-Raniri position on wrestling thinking face followers Hamzah Fanuri.
According Al-Palembani Ma’rifatullah according direct pure to God only can event in the beyond. Ma’rifah reached on light form which casted Allah SWT.
Al-Palembani explain that anyone yet regarded reach degree higher unity of God if certain that Allah SWT is world or on the contrary world is Allah SWT because which it is view pantheisme wujudiyyah which lost.
Anwar, Rosihin dan Mukhtar Solihin. 2000. Ilmu Tasawuf. Bandung.: Pustaka Setia.
Sunanto, Musyrifah, Prof. Dr. 2005. Sejarah Peradaban Islam Indonesia. Jakarta. PT Raja Grafindo Persada.
Penulis : Rifa’atul Mahmudah.
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